ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW
Adverse drug reactions are the undesirable unintended response of the drug which occurs at the doses normally used for the diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of the patient. ADR is the harmful effect other than desirable or expected which can vary from desirable from mild to severe reaction, even sometimes responsible for causing considerable morbidity and mortality. The reasons include overdose, polypharmacy, diseased condition etc. to name few among them. The increased ADR rate is highly alarming and thus requires proper monitoring and reporting of ADR to the concerned regulatory authorities. In this review we try to cover different aspects of adverse drug reactions like its types, factors affecting ADR, reasons for increasing rate of ADR, preventive measures and also the monitoring and reporting of ADR.
2. Abubakar AR, Simbak NB, Haque M. Adverse Drug Reactions: predisposing factors, modern classifications and causality assessment. Research J. Pharm. 2014; 7(9):1091-1098.
3. Edwards IR, Jeffrey KA. Adverse drug reactions: definitions, diagnosis, and management. The Lancet. 2000; 255-59.
4. Dhikav V, Singh S, Anand KS. Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring In India. JIACM 2004; 5(1): 27-33.
5. Pallasch TJ. Principles of Pharmacotherapy V. Toxicology and Adverse Drug Reactions. Anesth Prog. 1989; 36:41-45.
6. Lavan AH, Gallagher P. Predicting risk of adverse drug reactions in older adults. Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2016; 7(1):11â€“22.
7. Schatz SN, Weber RJ. Adverse Drug Reaction. CNS/Pharmacy Practice. 2015; 5-22.
8. Coleman JJ, Pontefrac SK. Adverse drug reactions. Clinical Medicine. 2016; 481-5.
9. Jordan S, Vaismoradi M, Griffiths P. Adverse Drug Reactions, Nursing and Policy: A Narrative Review. Ann Nurs Pract. 2016; 3(3): 1050.
10. Bfrahma DK, Wahlang JB, Marak MD, Snagma MC. Adverse drug reactions in the elderly. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2013; 4(2): 91-94.
11. Alomar MJ. Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2014; 22, 83-94.
12. Bhosale VV, Gaur SPS. Adverse drug reaction monitoring. Current SC 1024 Ience, 2011; 1024-1027.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).