NON-IONIC SURFACTANT VESICLES (NIOSOMES) BASED NOVEL OPHTHALMIC FORMULATION OF TIMOLOL MALEATE
The objective of the present work was to develop drug loaded niosomal ophthalmic formulation of timolol maleate (an antiglaucomal drug) for enhanced trans-corneal drug permeation and better ocular bioavailability. Timolol loaded niosomes were prepared by thin film hydration method using rotary evapoarator and ultra-sonicated for size reducation using probe sonicator. The nano-vesicle (niosomal) formulation was optimized by selecting surfactant content, cholesterol content and sonication time as independent variables and particle (vesicle) size, drug entrapment efficiency and % drug release as response variables for optimization studies. The timolol maleate niosomal (TMN) formulation was evaluated for particle size, pH and osmolalityÂ and was found to possess the desired properties. The developed TMN formulation was studied for % cumulative in-vitro drug release using bottle rotating apparatus (electrolab) and was found to be 79.98% over 8 hr period exhibiting sustained drug release profile. The ex-vivo trans-corneal drug permeation profile of developed TMN was studied using modified franz-diffusion cell apparatus (Permegear) and the % cumulative drug permeation across freshly excised goat cornea was found to be 65.90 % in 8 hrs duration, which was approximately 1.5 times higher than the conventional eye drop formulation. The developed TMN was also proved to be isotonic and non-irritant in HET-CAM ocular irritancy test. It was therefore, concluded from above studies, that the developed timolol maleate niosomal (TMN) formulation is better than conventional eye drops due to longer corneal retention, sustained drug release and better trans-corneal drug permeation and thereby higher ocular bioavailability, hence, would need less frequent administration.Â
2. Mancon M, Sinico C, Valenti D, Loy G, Fadda AM, Accelerated photostability study of tretinoin and isotretinoin in liposome formulations, Int J Pharm, 2002, 237-248.
3. Aggarwal D, Kaur I, Improved pharmacodynamics of timolol maleate from a mucoadhesive niosomal ophthalmic drug delivery system, Int J Pharm, 155-159.
4. Zhanrong Q, Zeng W, The Development of a Butyrylcholinesterase Porous Pellet for Innovative Detection of Cholinesterase Inhibitors, Eur J of Pharm Sci, 115-123.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).