ENHANCEMENT OF ORAL UPTAKE OF AMIKACIN USING COPOLYMERS
Amikacinis a semisynthetic derivative of Kanamycin; it was approved for clinical use in the U.S. in 1976. Amikacin is broad-spectrum and potent aminoglycoside with limited clinical use owing high dose requirement.Many gram-negative bacteria, including many strains of Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and serratiaare inhibited by 1-20 mcg/ml amikacin in vitro. After injection of 500mg of amikacin every 12hours (15mg/kg/d) intramuscularly, peak levels in serum are 10-30 mcg/ml. Amikacinis valuable because it was more active to aminoglycoside inactivating bacterial enzymes than is gentamicin. Since it was more inflated, amikacin was reserved for treatment of infections with gentamicin-resistant organisms. Peak plasma concentration should be kept between 20-30 mg/ml and trough concentration below 10mg/ml.There is no oral form of Amikacinis available as it is not absorbed orally. Various research on oral formulation of amikacinare going onsuch assignificantly improved oral uptake of amikacin in fvb mice in the presence of crl-1605 copolymer, liposomal amikacin dry powder inhaler effect of fines on in vitro performance, thiolated chitosan nanoparticles as an oral delivery system for amikacin.
Key Word: Gram-negative bacteria, aminoglycoside,chitosan nanoparticles.
2. Fath MJ, and Kolter R, Microbiology and Molecular Biology, American society for microbiology, 1993, 57(4), 995-1017.
3. Ouellete MD, Legare D., Papadopoulou B., Microbial multidrug-resistance ABC transporters, Trends Microbial, 1994, 2(10), 407-411.
4. Kaidoh K, Kimura M, Miyauchi S, Nara T, Kamo N, Drug Extrusion in Corynebacterium Glutamicum, Microbial drug resistance, 2009, 3(4), 345-350.
5. Kumana CR, Yuen KY, Parenteral aminoglycoside therapy: Selection, administration and monitoring, Adis International Ltd, 1994, 47(6), 902-913.
6. Molitoris BA, Bruce A, Cell biology of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity: newer aspects, Current Opinion in Nephrology & Hypertension, 1997, 6, 384-388.
7. Senior J, Fate and behavior of liposomes in vivo, Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst, 1987, 3(2), 123-193.
8. Patel HM, Serum opsonins and liposomes: their interaction and opsonophagocytosis, The Drug Carrier Syst. 1992, 9(1), 39-90.
9. Ganderton D, The generation of respirable cloud from coarse powder aggregates, Journal of Biopharm Sciences, 1992, 3, 101-105.
10. Atyabi F, Manoochehri S, Moghaddam HS, and Dinarv R, Cross-linked starch microspheres: Effect of cross-linking condition on the microsphere characteristics, Arch. Pharm. Res, 2006, 29(12), 1179-1186.
11. Krishnaveni, Chitosan: a review on its varied novel therapeutic and industrial applications, Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2016; 6(6),70-79
12. Avadi MR, Jalali A, Mir A, Mohammad S, Shamimi K, Bayati KH, Nahid E, Dehpour AR, and MRafiee-T ehrani, Diethyl methyl chitosan as an intestinal paracellular enhancer: ex vivo and in vivo studies, Journal of Pharmaeutical, 2008, 293(1-2), 83-89.
13. Clausen AE and Bernk OA, In vitro evaluation of the permeation-enhancing effect of thiolated polycarbophil, Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 2000, 89(10), 1253-1261.
14. Roldo M, Hornof M, Caliceti P, and Bernk OA, Mucoadhesive thiolated chitosans as platforms for oral controlled drug delivery: synthesis and in vitro evaluation, Eur. J. Biopharmaceutics, 2000, 57(1), 115-121.
15. Jagannath C, Wells A, Mshilvdadze M, Olsen M, Emanule RM, Hunter RL and Dasgupta A, Thiolated Chitosan Nanoparticles as an Oral Delivery System for Amikacin: In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluations, Lifesciences 2002, 64(9), 1773.
16. Werle M and Hoffer M, Glutathione and thiolated chitosan inhibit multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein activity in excised small intestine, Journal of Controlled Release, 2006 111(1-2), 41-46.
17. Majzoob S, Atyabi F, Dorkoosh F, kafedjiiski k, Pectin-cysteine conjugate: synthesis and in-vitro evaluation of its potential for drug delivery, J Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2006, 58(12), 1601-1610.
18. Cortesi R, Esposito E, Gambarin S, Telloli P, Menegatti E, Nastruzzi C, Preparation of liposomes by reverse-phase evaporation using alternative organic solvent, J Microencapsul, 1999, 16(2), 251-256.
19. Betageri GV, Jenkins SA, Parsons DL, Liposome Drug Delivery Systems, Lancaster, PA: Technomic Publishing Company, 1993, 52, 16-17.
20. Staniforth JN, Preformulation aspects of dry powder aerosols, IL: Interpharm Press, 1996, 66(33), 65-73.
21. Fiegel J, Fu J, Hanes J, Poly (ether-anhydride) dry powder aerosols for sustained drug delivery in the lungs, Journal of Control Release, 2004, 96, 411-423.
22. Staniforth JN, Preformulation aspects of dry powder aerosols, Respiratory Drug Delivery V. Buffalo Grove, IL: Interpharm Press; 1996, 9(2), 65-73.
23. Shah P, and Misra A, Liposomal Amikacin Dry Powder Inhaler: Effect of Fines on In Vitro Performance AAPS, Pharm Sci. Tech, 2004, 59(10), 812-813.
24. Hino T, Serigano T, Yamamoto H, Takeuchi H, Niwa T, Kawashima Y, Particle design of wogon extract dry powder for inhalation aerosols with granulation method, International Journal of Pharmaeutical, 1998, 168(1), 59-68.
25. Gonda I, Physico-chemical principles in aerosol-delivery, Germany: Medipharm Scientific Publishers, 1992, 9(12), 95-115.
26. Hickey AJ, Inhalation Aerosols - Physical and Biological Basis for Therapy, New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Inc, 1996, 11(9), 441-473.
27. Hamaker HC, London-van der Waals forces attraction between spherical particles, Physica (Utrecht), 1937, 4(10), 1058-1072.
28. Bernk OA, and Hornof M, and Margit M, Thiolated chitosans: development and in vitro evaluation of a mucoadhesive, permeation enhancing oral drug delivery system, Journal of Drug Delivery, 2001, 1(3), 241-248.
29. Atyabi F, Talaie F, and Dinarvand R, Thiolated Chitosan Nanoparticles as an Oral Delivery System for Amikacin: In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evaluations, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2009, 9(11), 4593â€“4603.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).