PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND IN VITRO ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM THE RHIZOME OF BERGENIA STRACHEYI (Hook.f. & Thomson) Engl.
The essential oil from the rhizome of Bergenia stracheyi (Hook.f. & Thomson) Engl. growing in the Himalayan region of Jammu & Kashmir is found rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenoids (43.06%) and higher oxygenated hydrocarbons (29.83%). Sesquiterpenoids (0.46%) and monoterpenoids (0.24%) were almost absent in the oil. Among oxygenated sesquiterpenoids Cadinene <14-hydroxy-Î´-> (38.36%) and Khusinol (2.06%) were the main components. The higher hydrocarbons and their derivatives include n-Hexadecanoic acid (10.60%), cis-9-hexadecenoic acid (4.46%), Linoleic acid (2.85%), Octacosane (2.52%), Cetanol (2.26%), Oleic acid (2.14%), Nonacosane (1.86%), n-Pentacosane (1.66%) and Untriacontane (1.48%). The oxygenated monoterpenoids include Î±-Terpineol (1.10%) as main constituent. The oil also contains m-xylene (11.27%) as the major lower hydrocarbon. The decoction of rhizome from Bergenia stracheyi are used in folk lore medicines in Jammu & Kashmir. The oil from the rhizome has shown moderate antifungal activity with 100% mycelia growth inhibition against S. sclerotiorum and A. tenuis at a concentration of 2000Âµg/ml and 3000Âµg/ml respectively. However C. graminicola and F. oxysporum were found less susceptible to this oil. The IC50 values showed a range from 802.7Âµg/ml to 1615.4Âµg/ml as compared to standard fungicides with IC50 values ranging from 36.8Âµg/ml - 78.6Âµg/ml. The spore germination inhibition test has revealed this oil as a moderate inhibitor with IC50 values 899.6Âµg/ml, 545.2Âµg/ml and 2014.7Âµg/ml for A. tenuis, C. graminicola and F. oxysporum spores respectively.
Keywords: Saxifragaceae, Alternaria, essential oil, fungicide, terpenoids.
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