MEDICINAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS
Medicinal plants play very important role to preserve the human healthy life. The knowledge of their healing properties has been transmitted over the centuries within and among human communities. A large number of different biologically active and therapeutic potentially active constituents are drawn from plant kingdom. The utilization of these natural compounds (secondary metabolites) for human aliments as well as animals begins from time immemorial. In the present paper six plants (Ocimum sanctum, Ipomea carnea, Delbergia sissoo, Lantana camara, Carissa carandas and Ricinus communis) are reviewed for their chemical constituents, medicinal and antioxidant property which ultimately leads to tissue damage resulting in a number of degenerative diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are class of highly reactive molecules derived from the metabolism of oxygen reported to prevent oxidative damage caused by free radicals and may prevent the body from various disorders. In past few years, the search for effective and more reliable non-toxic natural compounds with antioxidant activity has been intensified. The present review undertakes a brief account of research report on plants with medicinal and antioxidant potential.
Keywords: Medicinal plants, Antioxidant activity, Free radicals, Chemical constituents
2. Agbor AG, Ngogang YJ. Toxicity of herbal preparations. Cam. J . Ethnobot. 2005; 1: 23-28.
3. Young IS, Woodside JV. Antioxidants in health and disease. J. Clin. Pathol. 2001; 54: 176-186.
4. Halliwell B. Free radicals, antioxidants, and human disease: curiosity, cause, or consequence? Lancet. 1994; 344: 721-724.
5. Ali SS. Indian medicinal herbs as a source of antioxidant. Food and research International. 2008; 41: 1-15.
6. Gyamfi MA, Yonamine M, Aniya Y. Free radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Ghana Thonningia sanguinea on experimentally induced liver injuries. Gen. Pharmacol. 2002; 32: 661-667.
7. Uritani I, Garcia VV, Mendoza, EM editors. Novel neutral antioxidant for utilization in food and biological systems.Japan: Japan Scientific Societies Press; 1994. 241-25.
8. Noda Y, Anzai-Kmori A, Kohono M,Shimnei M, Packer L. Hydroxyl and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of natural source antioxidants using the computerized JES-FR30 ESR spectromoter system. Biochem. Mol. Biol.Inter. 1997; 42: 35-44.
9. Greco A, Minghetti L, Levi G. Isoprostanes, novel markersof oxidative injury, help understanding the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Neurochemical Research. 2000; 25: 1357.
10. Rajat G, Panchali D. A study on antioxidant properties of different bioactive compounds. Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics. 2014. 4(2): 105-115
11. Valko M, Leibfritz D, Monco, J, Cronin MTD, Mazur M, Telser J. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 2007; 39: 44â€“84.
12. Kahkonen MP, Hopia AI, Vuorela HJ, Rauha JP, Pihlaja K, Kujala TS and Heinonen M. Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1999; 47: 3954-3962.
13. Proestos C, Boziaris, I. S., Nychas, GJ E and Komaitis M. Analysis of flavonoids and phenolic acids in Greek aromatic plants: investigation of their antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity. Food Chem. 2006; 95: 664-67.
14. Lai LS, Chou ST. Studies on the antioxidative activities of Hsiantsao (Mesona procumbens.Hemsl.) leaf gum. J.Agric. Food Chem. 2001; 49: 963-968.
15. Ahmad I, Mehmood Z, Mohammad F. Screening of some Indian medicinal plants for their antimicrobial properties. J.Ethnopharmacol. 1998; 62 : 183-193.
16. Zhou YC, Zheng RL. Phenolic compounds and an analog as superoxide anion scavengers and antioxidants. Bioch. Pharm. 1991; 2 : 1177-1179.
17. Quinn LA, Tang HH. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds in macadamia nuts. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.1996; 73 : 1585-1588.
18. Seymour TA, Li SJ, Morrissey MT. Characterization of a Natural Antioxidant from Shrimp Shell Waste. J. Agri. Food.Chem. 1996; 44 : 682-685.
19. Salah N, Miller NJ, Paganga G, TijburgL, Bolwell GP, Rice Evans C. Polyphenolics flavonols as scavenger of aqueous phase radicals and as chain breaking antioxidants. Arch. Biochem.Biophys. 1995; 2 : 339-346.
20. Hertog MGL, Sweetnam PM, FehilyAM, Elwood P C, Kromhout D. Antioxidant flavonols and ischemicheart disease in a welsh population of men: the caerphilly study. Am. J. Clin.Nutr. 1997; 65 : 1489-1494.
21. Reiter RJ, Robinson GD. Free Radicals, Bantam Book, USA. 1995; 24.
22. Pareek SK, Maheswari ML, Gupta R. Domestication studies of O. sanctum for high oil and eugenol content. Indian pefumer. 1980; 24: 93-100.
23. Pareek SK, maheswari ML, Gupta R. Oil content and its composition at different stages of growth in O. sanctum Lin. Indian Perfumer. 1982; 26: 86-89.
24. Asthana OP, Gupta R. Effects of NP levels on Physiological parameters at growth stages in sacred basil (Ocimum sanctum Lin). Indian perfumer. 1984; 28: 49-53.
25. Verma PK, Punia MS, Sharma GD, Talwar G. Evaluation of different species of Ocimum for their herb and oil yield under Haryana conditions. Indian Perfumer. 1989; 33: 79-83.
26. Gupta SC. Validation of herbage yield, oil yield and major component of various Ocimum species/ varieties (chemotypes) harvested at different stages of maturity. J Essent oil Res. 1996; 8:275-279.
27. Nair AGR, Gunasegaran R. Chemical investigation of certain south Indian Plants. Indian J Chem. 1982; 21 B: 979-980.
28. Joshi A, Pathak AK, Tailang M, Comparative pharmacognostical characterization of selected species of ocimum, Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 2014. 4(2): 72-80
29. Mondal S, Mirdha BR, Mahapatra SC. The Science behind sacredness of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.). Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009; 53(4): 291-306.
30. Godhwani S, Godhwani JL, Vyas DS. Ocimum sanctum-A preliminary study evaluating its immunoregulatory profile in albino rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1988; 24: 193-198.
31. Hussain EHMA, Jamil, Rao M. Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) on streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Indian J of Clin Biochemistry. 2001; 16(2): 190-194.
32. Yanpallewar SU, Rai S, Kumar M, Acharya SB. Evaluation of antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of Ocimum sanctum on transient cerebral ischemia and long-term cerebral hypoperfusion. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004; 79:155-64.
33. Afifi MS, Amer MMA, El-Khayat S. A, Macro-and micro morphology of Ipomoea carnea Jacq. Growing in Egypt. Part II. Stem and root, Mansoura Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 1988; 4: 88-97, (1988).
34. Tirkey K, Yadava RP, Mandal TK, Banerjee NL.The pharmacology of Ipomoea carnea. Indian Veterinarian Journal. 1988; 65: 206-210.
35. Vaishali A, Eliza K, Manik K, Amuruta T, Pushpa P, Nirmala D. GC-MS Study of fatty acid, esters, alcohol from the leaves of Ipomoea carnea, International Journal of pharmatech Research. 2009; 1 (4) : 1224 â€“ 26.
36. Sahayaraj K and Ravi C. Preliminary phytochemistry of Ipomea carnea jacq. and Vitex negundo Linn. leaves. Int. J. Chem. Sci. 2008; 6(1): 1-6.
37. Huang GJ, Lai HC, Chang YS, Sheu MJ, Lu TL, Huang SS, Lin YH. Antimicrobial, Dehydroascorbate Reductase and Monohydro Reductase activities of Defensin from Sweet Potato [ Ipomoea batata (L.)Lam. Tainlong 57â€™] storage roots. J Agric Food Chem. 2008; 56: 2989-2995.
38. Mervat MM, Far EI, Hanan AA. Antioxidant activities , total anthrocynins, phenolics and flavonoids contents of some sweet potato genotypes under stress of different concentrations of sucrose and sorbitol. Australian J Basic Applied Sc. 2009; 3: 3609-3616.
39. Mahajan RT, Badgujar SB. Phytochemical investigations of some laticiferous plants belonging to Khandesh region of Maharashtra. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 2008; 12: 1145-1152.
40. Taha S, Abdul M, Abdul G. Phytochemical and Pharmacological studies of Dalbergia sissoo growing in Egypt, Pharmaceutical Biology. 1999; 37(1): 54â€62.
41. Qadri R. Comparative study of free amino acids from root nodules of four tree legume species, journal of applied botany and food sciences. 2010; 83(2): 148-150.
42. Cheng ZJ, Kuo SC, Chan S, Kou FN, Teng CM. Antioxidant properties of butein isolated from Dalbergia odorifera. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1998;1392: 291-299 .
43. Bhakta D, Ganjewala D. Effect of leaf positions on total phenolics, flavonoids and proantho-cyanidins content and antioxidant activities in Lantana camara (L). Journal of Scientific Research. 2009; 1(2): 363-369.
44. Rana VS, Prasa D, Amaro B. Chemical composition of the leaf oil of Lantana camara. J. Esst. Oil Res. 2005; 17(2): 198-200.
45. Pino JA, Rolando M, Aristides R, Carlos R, Pilar MM. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Lantana camara L. from Cuba. J. Esst.oil Res. 2004; 16(3):216-218.
46. Oyedeji OA, Ekundayo O, KÃ¶nig WA. 2003. Volatile leaf oil constituents of Lantana camara L from Nigeria. Flav. Fragr. J. 18(5): 384-386.
47. Sastri BN. The Wealth of India, New Delhi, Council of Scientific and Industrial Res. 1962.
48. Verma RK, Verma SK. Phytochemical and termiticidal studies of Lantana camara var aculeata leaves. Fitoterapia. 2006; 77: 466-468.
49. Mayee R, Thosar A. Evaluation of Lantana camara Linn. (Verbenaceae) for antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activities in rats. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2011; 3 (1):10-14.
50. Kumar S, Gupta P , Virupaksha Gupta V KL. A Critical Review on Karamarda (Carissa carandas Linn.). International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives. 2013; 4(4): 637 â€“ 642.
51. Zaki A, El-Tohamy S, El-Fattah S. Study of Lipid content and volatile oil of the different organs of Carissa carandus Lin. and Carissa grandiflora Dc. growing in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1983; 22(1Â¬4):127-41 (1983).
52. Pino J, Marbot R, Vazques C. Volatile flavour constituents of Karnda (Carissa carandas L.) fruit. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 2004;16(5): 432-4.
53. Siddiqui S, Ghani U, S. Ali S, Usmani S, Begum S. Triterpenoidal Constituents of the leaves of Carissa carandas. Natural Products Research. 2003;17(3):153.
54. Naim Z, Khan M, Nizami S. Isolation of a new isomer of ursolic acid from fruits and leaves of Carissa carandas. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 1988; 31(11): 753-5.
55. Balakrishnan N, Bhaskar VH. Karaunda (Carissa carandas Linn.)- As a phytomedicine: A review. Kongposh publications. 2009; 95.
56. Mishra CK, Pattnaik AK, Rani A, Sasmal AD, Nema RK. Antifungal and antibacterial activity of Carissa carandas Linn. Int. J. Plant Sci. 2009; 4: 564â€“568.
57. Kadiri M, Ojewumi AW, Onatade TN, Indigenous uses and phytochemical contents of plants used in the treatment of menstrual disorders and after-child birth problems in abeokuta south local government area of Ogun State, Nigeria, Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 5 (3), 33-42
58. Hegde K, Joshi AB. Hepatoprotective effect of Carissa carandas Linn. root extract against CCl4 and paracetamol induced hepatic oxidative stress. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2009; 47: 660â€“667.
59. Aslam F, Rasool N, Riaz M, Zubair M, Rizwan K, Abbas M, Bukhari TH, Bukhari IH. Antioxidant, haemolytic activities and GCâ€“MS profiling of Carissa carandas roots. Int. J. Phytomed. 2011; 3: 567â€“578.
60. Shamim S, Ahmad SI, Pharmacodynamic study on acute hypotensive activities of Carissa carandas extract in normal rats. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 2012; 25: 577â€“582.
61. Khogali A, Barakat S, Abou-Zeid H. Isolation and identification of the phenolics from Ricinus communis L. Delta J. Sci. 1996; 16: 198â€“211.
62. Kang SS, Cordell A, Soejarto DD, Fong HHS. Alkaloids and flavonoids from Ricinus communis. J. Nat. Prod. 1985; 48 (1): 155â€“156.
63. Adel K, Neji G, Mohamed D, Radhouane G. Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant properties of essential oil of Ricinus communis L. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2011; 5(8): 1466-1470.
64. Simboli N, Takiff H, McNerney R. In-house phage amplification assay is a sound alternative for detecting rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in low resource settings. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005; 49: 425-427.
65. Noordhoek GT, van Embden JD, Kolk, AH. Reliability of nucleic acid amplification for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an international collaborative quality control study among 30 laboratories. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 1996; 34: 2522-2525.
66. Singh PP, Chauhan SMS. Activity guided isolation of antioxidants from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. Food chemistry. 2009; 114(3): 1069 â€“ 1072.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).